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Sunday, May 29, 2011

Fiat 500 (1957-1975)


In the 50s, when Europe's roads traveled a lot mikrosamochodów, Fiat unveiled the successor to the immensely popular Topolino. The Italian company does not imitate other manufacturers, whose designs resemble, in principle, enclosed motorcycles. Fiat has created a true small car. Debuting in 1957, a model called Nuova 500 of successfully carrying 4 passengers and 50 kg of baggage. 2-cylinder, air-cooled engine with a capacity of 479 cc with no hassle gave the light, weighing just 680 kg, the car to a speed of 90 km / h.

Produced for nearly 19 years the Fiat 500 has undergone several modifications. Pretty soon received a more powerful 21-hp engine with a capacity of 499.5 cc, first used in a Sport version. In the years 1972-1975 the most recent variation of R (Rinnovata) fueled unit with a capacity of 594 cc and under 23 hp. Over the years, also changed his appearance and equipment.

As with the Topolino Belvedere, which successfully combined the advantages of a small car with pretty large transport capacity, it was decided to construct a similar vehicle based on the Fiat 500 The new model was designed by engineer Dante Giacosa was presented in 1960. The car was named Giardiniera, a gardener. Its original price was 565 thousand. lire. At the end of production in 1977 had already paid 1.72 million lire. Well, the Italian currency is terribly devalued.

Giardiniera driven by the same engine as the 500th model However, to save more space, it has been rotated clockwise by 90 degrees. This solution is used instead of the previously forced the use Weber 26 IMB carburettor Weber 26 OC. The cooling system was similar to that used in other vehicles, such as the VW Transporter. The air is sucked through the vents in the rear pillars and directed special channels on the fan.

New Fiat 500 Porter was about 21 cm longer than its original clearance. From 4 passenger cargo space is about 250 liters, after the rear row of seats and load the car up to the roof increases almost fourfold, and all of the small size of the vehicle. Loading area was located at a height of 60 cm.

Third, the rear doors open to the left. This enabled safe access to the cargo area. The car also had a retractable roof material. This allowed the transport of larger items. Until the end of production Giardiniera front door remained open into the wind, although in a civilian version of their hinges moved to the front edge.

Small "gardener" for many years faithfully served fine Italian craftsmen or farmers. And even today one finds it still carries cargo. Some of their owners work tirelessly to help more than 40 years. Fiat Giardiniery production ended in 1967. Over the next 10 years was still produced in factories Autobianchi.

Popular Fiat 500 in the 70s replaced by a new model of the 126th Italian designers based on his attempt to construct a similar model to Giardiniery. This time I ended up just a prototype.






Lancia Stratos (1972-1974)


Model Stratos Sandro Munari is the work, then, a major Italian designer Bertone studio. Prototype sports car that first saw daylight in 1970 at a car dealership in Turin. The vehicle began a new era in racing, referring numerous successes in the 70s and early 80th

After the release of the conception in 1970, called Stratos Zero, one year later showed another prototype of Lancia - Stratos HF. Body was painted an impressive red fluorescence. In the car long sought a suitable motor. Individuals were taken into consideration, among others and the Lancia Beta Fulvii. But they proved to be too weak. Finally the 2.5-liter V6 with 190 horsepower from the Ferrari Dino. The drive was moved to the back. The racing versions of the engine power was greater.

Stratos was probably built the first car designed for racing. Civilian version had not enjoyed too much success. In total, an estimated 500 copies of the variety of road and competitive.

Lancia Stratos owed much success mainly due to its design. The car had a central cage structure with the rear frame, which was placed on the engine. Low, wedge-shaped body was short and wide. All these factors meant that Stratos was characterized by excellent traction. Vehicle weight is 980 kg.

Lancia driver repeatedly stood on the podium a number of raids, dealing in all weather conditions. Evidence of this were three World Championship Constructors' titles in a row (1974, 1975 and 1976). In addition, in 1976 Bernard Darniche in Stratosie European Championship. The car ended his participation in rallies in 1979, when it comes to the factory teams.



BMW Isette (1955-1962)


Postwar attempts to conquer the market, BMW with luxury cars failed. Was salvation Isetta - a small car, which was the solution for anyone looking for agile vehicle with low maintenance costs

In the early 50s Twentieth century, an Italian company Iso SpA. produced refrigerators, scooters and vans Tricycles. Owner Iso - Renzo Rivolta - decided to build a small car for mass audiences. New vehicle constructed Ermenegildo Preti and Pierluigi Raggi. Auto motorized scooter received from the diminutive of the name of the company - Isetta. In October 1953 during the show in Turin, the car became a huge sensation. Something like this never seen before. A vehicle with an appearance reminiscent of an egg with bulging windows and only one door in front of the car. The canvas roof in case of accidents he served as a driver and a passenger emergency exit. For Isetty only one entered the door, which was also the front wall of the car.

Facilitate the attachment of swing along with the steering wheel. It was a two-seater, although with two adults could even fit a small child. Behind the seats was quite big trunk, which indicates the spare tire.

Although the appearance of car looked like a trike, in fact, had four wheels. The rear, however, were placed so close together that in some countries car was counted and taxed as a trike. Renzo Rivolta, however, decided to concentrate on the production of Iso Rivolta sports car, so sold the license for manufacturing Isetty to several countries. The most serious customers turned out to be the German BMW, which is a small car made even more famous.

In Bavaria, at once slightly modified bulbous silhouette of the car. In Motocoupe as originally called this car, also a new single-mounted, motorcycle engine in the BMW R25 / 3 with a capacity of 250 cc and a power of 12 hp. It consumed only 3.7 l/100 km. Auto rozpędzało to the maximum speed of 85 km / h. Also changed the front suspension. To keep Isetty in Germany entitled them even motorcycle license. The greatest advantage of the car was its price.

For BMW Isetta you had to pay 2,550 marks. The laborer then earned about 90 marks a week. Moreover, compulsory third party insurance for the car was 1995 model, and the bill from the IRS only sang for 44 brands. "That's less than a dachshund" - then proclaimed slogan. In 1956, production came Isetta 300, motorcycle engine capacity of 298 cc and a power of 13 hp. At the end of the 50s BMW introduced the long, four-seat version of Isetty 600 equipped with two-cylinder power unit in the system boxer and additional side doors. However, this model does not enjoy such popularity as the previous one. The last of the 161 728 copies Isetty rolled off the production line
in Germany in 1962.

Apart from Italy and Germany, Isetta manufactured in other countries. In France, it has produced in years 1955-1958 under license from Iso Velam company. There were built five versions of the car - a standard, convertible, luxury, sports and racing. Approximately 3,000 copies Isetty Romi was founded in plants in Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, Brazil. In 1957, Isetta of Great Britain began production of the 300 establishments in the old railway in the English Brighton licensed to BMW. In this version the doors open to the left, and moved the steering wheel to the right side.






Sunday, May 15, 2011

Vokswagen Scirocco (1974-1981)


For the first time the Scirocco model, whose body has developed Giorgetto Giugiaro was made public in the spring of 1974 at the Geneva motor show. Shortly thereafter, the plants in Wolfsburg came out the first copies that found their way to showrooms. In 1975, he began to export the Scirocco to the U.S..

At the beginning of the Scirocco was produced with three engines in four trim levels. L The base model had the engine with a capacity of 1.1 liter 50hp. S and LS models had a 1.5 liter engine under 70km, and the TS 1.5 liter engine with a power 85KM. On request, one could also order the LS model with an engine power of 85KM and the TS with an engine power of 70km.

If it comes to equipment models L, S, as well as L and LS were identical. Differed only engines. L and LS models could be identified by chrome bumpers with rubber strips and the decorative strips below the door.

Equipment inside was rich in those days and covered the side purely cosmetic elements such as additional decorative moldings and bruises too, electric heated rear window, front seats, reclining, Cigarette lighter, ashtray lamp as well in the trunk.

The Scirocco S there were no floor mats. On the floor was just a rubber mat.
The TS, in comparison with the L model was equipped with a double halogen headlights, side moldings with rubber profile, two-tone horns, integrated front headrests, sport steering wheels with the skin and the middle console with clock and voltmeter. In the cockpit, next to the clock also mounted tachometer.
Other equipment such as flip closed Baku, the windshield of laminated glass and a rear light anti-hazing could be obtained for an additional charge.

Since the beginning of all models of the Scirocco had front disc brakes, as opposed to the Golf, which version of the 50hp engine still had drum brakes.
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In June 1976, came on the market model Scirocco GTI engine 1588ccm on the injection power of 110HP. Scirocco GTI conquered the market and from the very beginning of August were selling well. However, other models of the Scirocco were again modified. Option equipment 75KM TS engine was renamed the GT version of the GL has received better materials, and suede rugs. While the GLI model possessed all the characteristics of a luxury sports such as tinted windows, standard metallic, seat cushions and rugs of high quality suede well as adjustable height front seats. Introduced three-stage blower and improved heating systems - ventilation.

In the model of 1978 modified bodywork and chassis to give customers additional incentives for shopping. Optimized Transmission and engine bearings and mounted on the rear and the front is not that is causing trouble for the exchange of plastic bumpers, which were at up to notches col

Soon we turned the engine carbureted 1.6 75KM to 1.6 per injection engine 110HP. Versions of the GTI and GLI have undergone major modifications to the braking system. Despite high prices began to offer air-conditioning. In 1979, 1.3 engine was introduced with a capacity of 60 HP. The GTI and GLI models started being mount 5 speed gearbox. In the last year of production, have introduced specific patterns of SL and CL.



Citroen Traction Avant (1934-1957)


Excellent road holding and cornering overcoming masterfully made the Citroën Traction Avant was often used by gangsters. These same characteristics also appreciated the police.

At a time when the Eiffel Tower 280 thousand. lamps illuminated the word "Citroen", the French company introduced a car that quickly became one of the legends of the automotive industry. In 1934, the Quai de Javel in Paris, started production of the Traction Avant. As the name suggests, this was a vehicle with front-wheel drive. This is the first such car produced on a mass scale. New Citroën had a number of other innovative design solutions, such as self-supporting body, independent suspension and hydraulic brakes.

The creator of this work was a young engineer André Lefebvre, who moved from another Citroën car manufacturer Gabriel Voisin. Responsible for motor Sainturat Maurice, a former employee of companies Delage and Hotchkiss. The body of the new car has not been drawn, but molded from clay by the sculptor Flaminio Bertoniego. The first vehicle of the series was a model of the Traction Avant 7A. It's auto show in March 1934 was fitted with an engine capacity of 1303 cc and a maximum capacity of 32 hp. Seven in a number of so-called implied. fiscal horses, on which depended the tax. Other models also determined in a similar manner.

Citroën 7 later received 1529 cc engine (35 hp), 1,911 cc (46 hp) and 1,628 cc (36 hp). The value of the tax, however, remained at the primary level. It has changed the types of 11 (1934-1957, vol. 1.9 l, 56 to 60 hp) and 15 (1938-1955, 6-cylinder engine with a capacity of 2867 cc and 77 bhp).

Traction Avant amazed comfortable suspension. Could very well feel it all the while overcoming inequality. What's more, it offered travelers a lot of space, especially on a comfortable back seat. 3-speed gearbox control by the long chrome lever protruding from the dashboard. Because of its appearance it was called "spoon mustard." Also quite liked the avant-garde design of the car.

New model of development costs were so high, that already in 1934, Citroën declared bankruptcy. Michelin took over the company, which operated it until 1976. The new owner has contributed to the improvement and good handling characteristics as the Traction Avant. In 1949 he presented a tire type X, which is the first radial tires, then still called "opasanym. They clearly improved grip in corners, and besides, characterized by three times longer lifetime. In 1954, a novelty in the 15 was the use of hydropneumatic rear suspension, so. Oléopneumatique who later received a modernized version of the Citroën DS. This model of the Traction Avant in the model received a letter H.

Citroën 15 Six in 1946-1955 was the car oficjanym president of the French Republic. Traction Avant frequently appeared on the silver screen. Most were placed in his roles of villains, that is, vehicles gangster, and this is probably due to the fact that a rule has been painted dark colors. In gangster films, he played with Jean Gabin. In the "Flic Story" was accompanied by Alain Delonowi. There could also miss him in the James Bond series. In the "greetings from Russia" ("From Russia with Love") on the streets of Istanbul, "007" followed an employee of the Bulgarian intelligence people just such a car.
Production 'Citroën Traction Avant was completed July 25, 1957 year.

During his 23 years produced 759 111 of all types of car. Most originated in France, but the total number of vehicles produced 26 400 cars were built in Slough UK, 31 750 in the Forest (Belgium), 1823 in Cologne (Germany). Of course, if not the Second World War Citroën Traction Avant road be willing to do much more.