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Sunday, March 20, 2011

BMW 3 E21 (1975-1983)

BMW E21 is considered the first model series 3, which the company began producing from Munich. The first models came down the production line in 1975, they were models of four-cylinder versions of 316, 318, 320, 320i and the newer generation of engines per injection. In 1977 you could already buy the 320 and 323i models with engines 6 - cyl. For efficient and less demanding in terms of performance, in 1981, presents a model 315, 1.6 engine, such as the construction of the model 316, but with less power. In total, from 1975 to 1983 produced two body versions: 2 door sedan and 2 door kabrio baur, was unusual in the E21 station wagon (touring) (multiple units). Auto characterized by an interesting figure popularly known as "shark." Front end of a side profile reminiscent of a shark's head.

At the beginning of the production of carburetors mounted turbo engines, and later they started to produce injection engines (the first model, a modified M10 320i). The basic unit of gasoline (E21 did not have a diesel engine) is a model 316 had a power of 90 bhp and gave the up to 160 km / h. The first 100 km / h when it obtained 13.8 s. Only an entity working on the injection could boast of decent performance with the 320i model possessed the power of 125 hp and gave the up to 180 km / h. In 1977 he assembled the first 6-cylinder engines in the 320 and 323i, for that was even weaker available automatic transmission. These were the beginnings of M20 engine. In 1980 he was named the most powerful version of the E21 Alpina B6, its power is 200 hp, which was achieved with 2.8-liter engine. Sprint to 100 was 7.5 seconds, in these times is really a lot. Since 1981. introduced the model 315 of reduced power to 75 hp. This model was the longest E21 models produced until 1983, now in parallel with three second-generation E30.

The model at the end of eight years has undergone several modifications. The main changes are additional lights to the front since 1977 At the beginning of a narrower tire mounted (165) after modification could meet with a width of 185 mm for 13 inch rims, an increase in the fuel tank of 52 liters to 58 liters.

Saturday, March 12, 2011





Lancia Delta HF Integrale (1979-1994)

Six world titles in rallying producers gained in a row. It's just part of the achievements of one of the most popular car in automotive history - Lancia Delta HF Integrale.In 1979 he released the Lancia Delta, a successful compact, which were mounted engines with capacities of 1.3 and 1.5 liters, from the Fiat Ritmo. Just one year later won the prestigious title of auto poll of European Car of the Year and motivated Lancia. In 1983 he introduced a model Delta HF Turbo, which was powered by turbocharged engine gaźnikowym DOHC 1.6-liter. 130 horsepower made the compact camera with a light sports car.In 1986 ended the era of cars racing in Group B, a 600-horse monster a little slower than contemporary F1 cars. A year later, the maximum power cars slashed to 300 horsepower, and the battle joined in the Audi 200 Quattro, Sierra RS Cosworth and Nissan 200 SX.

Unrivalled proved to be the Lancia Delta HF 4WD, which in the years 1987-1992 has won six league titles in the constructors' championship in a row. The experience gained during the rally the Italian manufacturer decided to move to a public road. That is born Lancia Delta HF Integrale, a car with one of the greatest ever in the history of motoring.

Delta HF Integrale was presented in November 1987. Turbocharged, eight valve engine with 2.0-liter intercooler and electronic fuel injection producing 185 horsepower output. It was enough to car accelerated to the first hundred in 6.6 seconds and tended to a top speed of 218 kmh. As for those times such a performance in a compact, Lancia were incredible.

Two years later, in May 1989, Lancia has made liter power unit to another 8-valve, creating a 16-valve engine with 200 horsepower. 0-100 km / h in 5.7 seconds and a top speed of 220 km / h. Auto also got hydraulic clutch, wider wheels, more advanced ABS system. Changed the distribution of power in proportion to the front 47%, 53% back on the 44:56.

After 2 years, in October 1991, Lancia introduced the next version of the Delta Integrale, which this time she wore the additional designation Evoluzione. This model is distinguished from the older version of the wider wheel arches, new front suspension, stronger brakes and the extra power under the hood (210 hp) version, without a catalyst.

Evoluzione model was not a great step forward in terms of performance car, but made up for lack of grip, handling and braking. Later versions turned up Martini Martini Five and Six, which were released on the market to celebrate Lancia consecutive league titles. At the end of production of the Delta Integrale was already 215 hp and 298 Nm of torque.

Audi Quattro (1980-1991)

After three years of intensive research, 4 March 1980 at Geneva Motor Car VW unveiled a new design - the Audi Quattro. The car had some interesting technical solutions such as permanent four-wheel drive (quattro), five-cylinder, turbocharged power unit, or electronic ignition system. Audi Quattro-set body formed the shape of a wedge. Elongated openings on the rear pillars, rear spoiler and wide sills and fenders fit a clear hit-sporty character. In front of the body style, model, referred to the 200th

From the moment it is put into production - a month after the Geneva launch - was an instant competitor to the best sports car brands. And just as quickly proved its value in the raids - including the Audi Quattro driven by the great Finnish driver Hannu Mikkola, and also by the French champions Michele Mouton placed the steering wheel at the forefront. After the first two seasons of sports Audi Quattro was one of the best rally cars of the world. It is worth emphasizing that this top Quattro came right away, without the other makes of competitors required period of experience. Certainly not without significance here was the fact that Audi has committed a very good drivers. However, the success certainly contributed to four-wheel drive and a very good engine, delivering outstanding driving dynamics. In racing events, especially played on bad roads or off-road Quattro was a winning one.

Audi Auto Union company needed these successes - she wanted to refer to the magnificence of their sports cars of the thirties. It worked. The Audi was again loudly. In developing the design of the Quattro thought about the successes of sports racing events, ie, where they can compete in a series produced cars, which also made it the car of a sports utility.

Construction of the car was done very carefully. Already in April 1977 to mass-produced Audi 80 chassis fitted with a prototype 4-wheel drive. The study was carried out prototypes in different conditions: in the Austrian Alps, at Hockenheim, and also on the sands of the Sahara. It is worth to mention that he participated in the tests later Quattro rally driver - Hannu Mikkola.
Used to drive 5-cylinder turbocharged engine with a capacity of 2144 cc from the Audi 200 5T, whose power was enlarged from 170 to 200 hp. Between the turbo and the head was used Intercooler, lowering the temperature from 130 to 80 ° C. In addition to the mechanical fuel injection Bosch K-jetronic (civilian version and early versions of the rally) was used in Japanese, contactless electronic Hitachi precisely regulates ignition timing of the mixture. In 1987, increased capacity of the drive unit to 2,226 cc, and two years later was replaced with a turbocharged engine having four valves for each of the five cylinders with a capacity of 220 hp, in which was equipped with a Quattro until the cessation of production in 1991
The car had three differentials: the front axle, rear and międzyosiowy, built just behind the gearbox (the last two blocks with cusped). About 200 first copies had full manual control differential locks, power seats were introduced later.
Noteworthy is also dynamics of the car - to a speed of 100 km / h gave the Quattro over 7.1 s (with 20 valve engine 2226 cc - 6.3 s).

Since autumn 1983, was built alongside the next limited edition car - Audi Sport Quattro with 20-valve engine (2,135 cc) with a factory power 306 hp, kevlar bodywork, and a smaller wheelbase - 220.5 cm. During a presentation at the Frankfurt autosalonie was told the price of the car - then the dizzying 200 000 brands - including the Audi Sport Quattro for a long time became the most expensive model of the brand (compared to 944 it cost in 1982 - 39 000 marks).

Made 214 series units (of which 164 were sold to customers), because the International Automobile Federation (FIA) require manufacturers to each B-group "rally car" was created in a series of at least 200 pieces

Audi Sport Quattro has written a separate chapter in the history of rally - had the power from 360 to 600 hp (evolution Sporta called S1), a version that competed in 1987 at the famous Pikes Peak race in Colorado, had over 700 hp.

Thursday, March 10, 2011

Volkswagen Beetle (1938-2003)

60 years ago, on December 27, 1945. in Wolfsburg began series production of the Volkswagen Beetle. By the end of this year have produced 55 copies. The last Beetle number 21,529,480 rolled off the production plants in Puebla (Mexico) 30 July 2003.

Shortly after the debut of the Beetle British military authorities ordered 20,000 cars, 500 special vehicles (from the trailers for mail) and an additional 200 trailers. 6,033 laborers worked on the implementation of that order until mid-1946.

Despite the fact that the beginnings of the production of the Beetle were extremely difficult, in 1946. plant gates left 10,020 cars. A year later, as a result of severe winter froze "Mittelkanal," which delivered components, which resulted in the production of the Beetle suspension for three months. In 1947roku Volkswagen through the British managed to export the first 5 copies of the car to the Netherlands.

After the currency reform and the introduction of market economy, production volume, even "exploded". VW Beetle with the VW Transporter (produced since March 1950), became a symbol of German economic miracle. In 1955. Volkswagen celebrated the release of the crew in the world millionth Beetle. Until the mid-70s of the twentieth century, when it entered the production models Passat, Golf and Polo, Volkswagen produced only Garbusy - breaking new records on the occasion of the production.

The first prototypes of the Beetle came to light on July 3 1935. At the beginning of 1936. Convertible version was tested in July of this year, new variant of the saloon with a modified engine. 50,000 km test revealed, however, need further work. In 1937. V3 Series vehicles have been replaced by a series of W30. After 2,315,725 km, it turned out that this concept works Beetle in terms of both durability and fuel efficiency and ride comfort.

In 1938. ready for series production vehicle was equipped with a rear-mounted, air-cooled, four-cylinder boxer engine with a capacity of 985 cm3. He attained the power of 24km (at 3,000 rpm) and allowed to travel at a constant speed of 100 km / h.

Engine cooling fan ensures the belt driven engine mounted above the sheet metal casing, which is mounted on the extended generator. To make room for it, the engine was slightly tilted (according to the patent Porsche in the early twentieth century '30). With such a cooling system, the engine could not freeze in winter or overheat in the summer.

Clutch, gearbox and axle drive system is placed in a common housing. Engine power was transmitted through jednotarczowego, dry clutch. The exhaust system is mounted across the engine.

Trouble-free drive unit was light and had a compact size. Among others thus, average fuel consumption was 7.5 l/100 km. Located on the front mask of the fuel tank had a capacity of 41 liters, and the available cargo space 75 liters.

By the end of the war but built only 630 cars for civilian use. The idea of ​​"a car for the masses," however, was still alive. Therefore, construction of the vehicle began to develop from the first days of post-war production. The new engine with a capacity of 1131 cm3 had the power of 25 hp (at 3,300 rpm) and allowed to travel at a speed of 105 km / h. In addition to the standard model, introduced in 1949, the export version, which is equipped with hydraulic brakes and front shock absorbers, and then in 1952. a gearbox, in which 2 and 4 fourth gear were synchronized.

The power unit of Volkswagen Series 1200, which was launched in 1954., Had a volume of 1,192 cm3 and power of 30 bhp. When you press the gas pedal (which has become a modern, elongated form) car accelerated to a maximum of 112 km / h. In 1960. Wolfsburg engineers strengthened the export version of the Beetle, an additional 4 hp, and introduced the all-synchromesh gearbox. Over the next two years includes more than 2,000 minor modifications, which modernized the vehicle in accordance with the spirit of the times.

World accelerated, and the Beetle with him. In 1965. Volkswagen debuted 1300th Its engine capacity of 1285 cm3 has developed an output of 40 hp at 4,000 revolutions per minute and gave the car to 122 km / h. The following year he appeared Beetle 1500 with an engine power of 44 hp, coming straight from the second generation of the Volkswagen Transporter, which gave the car to 128 km / h.

Increased power. There were also changes include safety and functionality. In August of 1966. 1500 model received a standard drum brakes on the front wheels. A year later, in 1300 and 1500 series were introduced from the cab unlocked filler, so that the refueling was no longer necessary to open the bonnet.

In 1971. model introduced in 1302 to choose from an engine power of 44 hp or a sport version with a capacity of 55 hp. Cars of this type have already been elements of the suspension struts. Telescopic shock absorbers with a stabilizer on the front axle to replace the structure with transversely arranged pipes and beams. The active safety systems introduced a wider wheelbase (to improve adhesion), the passive, however, gained by the mounting of the steering wheel, which broke up on impact.

After completion of the production of Beetles in Germany (in 1974. In Wolfsburg, in 1978. Emden) and move it to Mexico to work on further development of this model has not ceased. For example, the Brazilian market prepared a special version called "fusca", driven by a modified engine (it has been adapted to run on alcohol fuel), 1.6 liter 52 hp power. In view of the fact that the new version of the Beetle was powered fuel with different properties, the car is equipped with copper and nickel coated dual carburetor. Also changed the fuel pump and fuel tank made tinned.

In 1993. 1600 Series Beetle modified for the last time. The engine received fuel injection and cylinder heads provided with hydropopychacze. 3-way catalytic converter replaced the previously installed catalyst unregulated. In this way the Beetle began to meet Euro 3 emission levels and also in force in Mexico, the U.S. standard No. 1

The last copy of the VW Beetle was designated version of the "Ultima Edicion".

Triumph Spitfire (1962-1980)

Spitfire was born in 1959 as the "Bomb", sporting a variety Triumph Herald. He took over from her motor with a capacity of 948 cm3, but at the time of entry into production in 1962 already have the power unit with a capacity of 1147 cm3 63 hp. From his "older brother" Spitfire took so actually just slightly shortened frame and record in the world maneuverability - the turning circle was 7.32 meters!

Unfortunately, the maneuverability was accompanied by terrible design errors in abeyance. To maximize comfort, which includes the all-wheel independent suspension, the rear axle is designed as a combination of the broken axle with transverse spring element positioned leaf-spring. As a result, during dynamic driving the car when cornering there have to drastic changes in the slope of the wheels, and high-heel center of body - whatever the problems with the rear wheel turning angle - the tendency to induce a rapidly emerging oversteer. Hence, it is not surprising that the car - although beautiful - immediately gained as many fans as enemies.

Fans stressed the sporty look, performance and comfort, while the opponents are still pointed to the dangers of driving characteristics pathetic cars, creaking of a rigid body is not enough and its leaking. These defects were not eliminated in future versions of the MK2 (produced between 1965 -
-67) And MK3 (1967-1970), although substantially improved the overall quality of finish, while still increasing both the capacity of the engine, its power and performance.

MK3 were produced as another mutation in the same car. Changes compared to the previous concern only minor cosmetic bodywork, engine and increase its power (up to 1296 cm3, 75 hp) and the introduction of motorway electrohydraulic gear (overdrive) in a four-gear box. Theoretically, this option was available since the first "incarnation" Spitfire (with overdrive), but only in the MK3 its use has any sense - except, of course, the technical superiority over the most dangerous competitors, Austin Healey, MG Midget.

Despite his numerous flaws Spitfire enjoyed enormous success. Has sold a total of 314 342 units, of which more than half in the U.S.. The latter information is puzzling, since in a typical U.S. car could hide under his mask, the size of motor drive unit air conditioner compressor Spitfire instead.

Sunday, March 6, 2011

Citroen 2CV (1948-1990)

French cult vehicle has never sinned nor the rich beauty of the equipment. Although it turns out to be a popular car, antique car enthusiasts.

The history of the 2CV model started from the fact that the then director Pierre Boulanger has proposed the construction of cheap, popular car. However, such a vehicle had to meet a number of assumptions. The designers had in him to set aside space for four adults with luggage weighing 50 kg, the vehicle had to be economical, comfortable, while its top speed had to be at least 50 km / h. As if this were not enough, the design of the vehicle had to be simple, original, and to guarantee space.
A prototype of a vehicle constructed according to these principles was built in 1935, draws on an examination that was carried out in the 20s Until 1937, made a series of trial (250-300 units). The car uses 2-cylinder BMW engines water-cooled boxer. With a capacity of 375 ccm 8 KM Securenta acquired entity. To the transmission uses a 3-speed transmission without synchronization. In the car was not the starter and start the engine takes place crank mounted on a permanent basis.

The body is made of metal, and the roof of the canvas. Unfortunately, the outbreak of the war wiped out plans to bring the car into mass production. Test series almost completely destroyed, that in the hands of the Germans. Left only a few hidden units with the technical documentation.

Throughout the period of occupation in hiding from the Germans was carried out works aimed at the modernization of the vehicle. Citroen 2CV officially shown at the Paris salon in 1948, and the serial production started a year later. Initially, the 2CV was sold only in gray.

As opposed to the pre-war cars had two headlights instead of one, electric start, two front wipers and turn signals, and the BMW engine was replaced by his own design. Still it was a boxer, but the air cooled and had the power of 9 KM. This time the drive was transmitted via the 4-speed gearbox.

Since 1954, the power unit capacity was increased to 425 cc, a power drop was 9-12 hp. Later, the engine power was increased to 21 hp. Another modification of the drive the car passed in 1967, when production hit an engine capacity 602 cc and under from 1928 to 1931 hp. An important change was the introduction of design after 1964, the door opened under the direction of travel in lieu of opening the stream.

In the years 1975-1980 in the car was introduced, among others Rectangular headlights, wider bumpers and grille were prepared from plastic. The last modification of the car was conducted in 1980, then back on the use of round headlights and rectangular are available on request. At the front there are disc brakes, front seats are equipped with seat belts, and have also become standard belts in the rear. In addition, the engine uses a new carburetor.

Citroën 2CV was produced until 1989 in Paris. Finally, its production ended a year later in a Spanish factory in Vigo. A total of nearly 4 million were created for these vehicles.

The peculiarity of this car is the chassis. Wheels suspended on a single longitudinal rockers. Front and rear springs are combined. The result is comfort and, unfortunately, strong spring roll when cornering and braking. Unusual solution is to put shock absorbers on the wheels.

Auto arose in different body styles. Since 1951 the van was produced, the variety of the 1958 Sahara with all-wheel drive. It uses two motors. Additional built in the trunk and drives the rear wheels of the vehicle. Drive axles has been passed through two gearboxes. Such a vehicle involved in the Paris-Dakar rally. In 1967, he appeared to be more luxurious variant of Dyane, Mehari and a year later with the body of plastic.

Porsche 914 (1969-1976)

When in 2002 presented the Cayenne uproar among fans of the Porsche brand. A new car developed in collaboration with Volkswagen was the SUV. A similar fracas took place in 1969 when it also in cooperation with the manufacturer designed the Beetle model 914 - relatively cheap, two-door sports car, which in its basic version was equipped with a propulsion unit straight from VW. There have been allegations that the exclusive German brand wants to make another manufacturer producing cars for everyone. Some still argue that the 914-particle is not a Porsche. But Volkswagen is actually in disguise?
Let's start with the basic information: Anywhere outside the U.S. the car was sold as a VW-Porsche 914, so no one is hiding the links of both manufacturers. By the way - today, the Cayenne can not see the VW badge, and yet the Touareg.

The basic version of the Porsche 914 (914-4) had a four-cylinder, 1679 cm3 80 hp and torque of 131 Nm. Maximum capacity of the drive unit are achieved at 4900 rpm. This allowed the dispersal weighing less than 900 kg 914-particles to 177 km / h. Acceleration to 80 km / h took around 9 s. The engine came from the stables of Wolfsburg. But that was not the only unit in the Porsche 914!

Much more interesting version, but much more expensive edition was 914-6. This model was equipped with a six-cylinder engine with a capacity of 1991 cm3 and a power of 111 hp. Maximum power is reached at 5,800 rpm. With this unit tended Porsche 914 201 km / h and acceleration to 80 km / h took 7 s. The engine (both in the variant four-and six-cylinder) was placed centrally, and access to it was difficult.

The interior has been prepared in accordance with the style of Porsche. Tachometer was placed in the middle fuel level indicator and a tachometer. Steering is reminiscent of the Porsche 911, like the rest of the dashboard. Buyers can choose the interior colors of the 11 options at the start of production to 15 in the final stage. Accessory pack was quite big - you could buy such fog lights, leather steering wheel and horn dwudźwiękowy. Each piece 914 has a targa-type body without longitudinal bracket. A characteristic feature is the fact that regardless of engine options for the Porsche had a great weight distribution and excellent suspension, so that led to and provoked great driving dynamics.

Sales of 914 increased from year to year. In 1971 alone produced 16 thousand. units. A year later, more than 21,000. The car gained particular popularity in the U.S., where he prepared for stringent safety standards (which was associated with a decrease in power drive units), was sold with great success. In the U.S. demand for such cars was high, because there also successfully sold the Fiat X1 / 9 - a competitor in a straight line 914-particles.

The vast majority of buyers opt for a weaker power unit, so six Porsche 914 is no longer produced as early as 1972 in his place was introduced four-liter engine that generates 101 hp and to achieve a 192 km / h. Acceleration to 80 km / h took 6.6 seconds to this model, while up to 100 km / h in less than 10 s. Since 1974, Porsche sold 914 of 1.8 liter engine, which replaced the previously weakest unit. Power in relation to version 1.7 increased to 86 hp and a top speed of 180 km / h.

In 1974 he released a series of Limited Edition, available in black and white. Bumpers, wheels and other exterior trim can be yellow in the case of LE as Black or green or orange as White LE. In front of the vehicle and mounted spoiler. Throughout the production period, ie from 1969 to 1976 Porsche 914 has not undergone any more modifications. Edited trifles, increased package of additional equipment and essentially so. Facelift was not needed because the car sold very well. During the whole period of production of their owners were more than 118 thousand. copies. Unfortunately, only slightly more than 3300 vehicles were fitted with a straight six-cylinder engine from the Porsche 911 Today, it is these copies are highly sought after among collectors. However, it is rarer model 914-particle - the Porsche 914 / 8 with eight-cylinder engine with 260 hp. But this was only a prototype, which was aimed at checking the strength of the car in the future to be able to use more powerful engines in the serial model. For this did not happen - the end of its 914 production was sold to well-known four-cylinder units.

Why Porsche 914 was a great success? The basic version, costing relatively few allowed to enter the elite group of Porsche owners. What is more, the car is not only called Porsche, but also had a jam sport. Attractive two-door targa ideally suited to the American boulevards and sunny Mediterranean city. Technologically well as many 914-stce could not be accused of - good suspension, good gearbox with short gear ratios. The only drawback was the base engine, which does not generate enough power for a very dynamic driving. But despite all the Porsche 914 in each version gave a lot of fun.

Used models hold quite a high price and a copy of the medium can pay more than the Porsche 924 and 944th Holders of this model are divided into collectors trying to keep the vehicle in accordance with the state primary and tuning enthusiasts. Many more powerful engines fitted with both the other Porsche model and units of other brands. There is a copy of the V8-powered Chevrolet, Subaru body, and even electric. Engineers have created a really strong and a decent chassis, chassis and powertrain, so the installation of efficient engines possible. And then the light Porsche 914 turns out to be faster than any 911-particle.

Thursday, March 3, 2011

Volkswagen Transporter T1 (1950-1967)

The first "Bulli" was coined in 1947 by Dutchman Ben Pona, and was built in record time the factory does not keep pace with its production.

The story begins in 1947. Dutchman Ben Pon Sr., whose company, Sun's Automobielhandel was the first foreign importer of Volkswagen after World War II, met with representatives of the Minden wolfsburskich British government establishments to talk about buying a few Beetles for the Netherlands. (After World War II, Germany was divided into occupation zones, and the Volkswagen plants were in the area managed by the British).

During the conversation the Dutchman drew in his notebook, handwritten draft of a van with a revolutionary concept: rear engine, front driver and place between them at 750 kg load. The inspiration for Pona was built for indoor plants, quaint Flatbed truck, which saw the ruins of the hall in Wolfsburg.

After some time, even in 1948, Heinirch Nordhoff, a new member of the board in Wolfsburg, Pona accepted the idea and commissioned the principal designer Alfred Haesnerowi its implementation. Less than a year later the technical documentation and 1948, built the first prototypes. When the work was used in wind tunnel tests. Coefficient of Cw first structure was about 0.7, but has been reduced to unprecedented at the time of 0.44. As the Beetle floor pan was too weak to transport heavy loads, it reinforced a special frame. The prototype of the Volkswagen Transporter was presented to reporters on Nov. 12, 1949 year in Wolfsburg and was received with enthusiasm.

8 March 1950 year in Wolfsburg began mass production of the vehicle marked with Type 2 Transporter (Type 1 had the Beetle), and commonly known as T1 or "Bulli" from the first letters of the name "Bus Lieferwagen" (German Commercial bus).

The plant produced its first commercial vehicle in four versions: a van, special vehicle, 8-passenger van and as a store salesmanship. The car had a load capacity of 825 kilograms. With a full load reached a maximum speed of 75 km / h and consume 8-9 liters of fuel per 100 km.

In 1951 he presented a model Samba - bus passenger, who soon conquered the world. Paint in two colors, sliding roof, lots of chrome and 21 windows were something hitherto unheard of. Like no other vehicle, a minibus has become the constant companion of many years of globe-trotters. In the same year was built on the basis of the first Transporter ambulance.

Four years after the start of series production, rolled off the production line conveyor hundred-thousandth. At those times of Bytom is a great achievement. It soon became apparent that the production capacity at Wolfsburg plant are almost fully utilized. It was decided to build a new facility only deals with vehicle mount. The race: 235 municipalities are fighting for it to be located in their area. The decision is taken on Jan. 24, 1955 - factory built in Hanover.

Layout of the factory was extremely modern: the production was on the first floor, upstairs hall, and the flow of materials has been provided below on the ground floor. The plant in Hanover was then the most modern, and perhaps even the most beautiful plant producing cars in the world.

Just a year after the decision to build, and the sixth anniversary of the start of production, 8 March 1956, after a very short construction period, the production line of new plant rolled off the first Transporter. Initially, the factory employed 4 954 workers, who assembled 250 per day initially, then 300 units Transporter. Demand for Transporter surpassed all expectations. Just one year after the start of production the factory was too small. With the addition of Hall 2 of its size is doubled. The number of employees increased in the early years by 70-80 percent.

In 1958, Volkswagen's designers have presented a proposal, without which it is impossible today to imagine the commercial vehicles - a double cabin. A year later, in 1959, the Transporter has received all-synchromesh transmission, which was not far from evident at the time you press a double clutch when changing gears. In 1960, he introduced a flashing turn signals. They replace previously used an arrow indicating the intention of turning performance. T1 model was produced until 1967, when it was replaced by T2.

Jaguar E-Type (1961-1975)

Jaguar E-Type, with its long hood is considered a symbol of '60s sports car This British car was very fast one of the most recognizable in automotive history.

Initially, Jaguar E-Type was designed as a high-performance vehicle. He was replaced by D-type, which had enjoyed a number of important successes in the races. But everything has changed. The company management has decided to temporarily withdraw from the sport. In this situation, engineers at Coventry focused on creating a road car, and the result of their work surpassed all expectations. The car unveiled March 15, 1961 year living in Geneva, immediately became a huge sensation. A little later, two-door coupé, and two roadsters presented at the New York Auto Show, won the hearts of Americans.

Jaguar E-Type was delighted with his unique, beautiful lines. Responsible for the appearance of the car engineer Malcolm Saver, which was first used in the history of aerodynamics to build car bodies. However, not only the design was determined by the success of this model. New Jaguar surprise and uncommon performance.

The vehicle is equipped with a 6-cylinder in-line engine with a capacity of 3.8 liters, which reached a maximum power of 265 hp. Auto offered only with 4-speed, sport, manual transmission Moss without syncing first run. New, independent rear suspension designed by Bob Knight. Mounted them on the cradle, which was attached to the body through the rubber-steel fasteners.

Excellent unit in conjunction with a lightweight, aerodynamic body guaranteed a top speed of 100 km / h in 6.9 s. The car was able to cross the magical speed of 150 mph (about 240 km / h). Thanks to his performance of the E-Type was quickly transferred to the elite sports cars of the sixties.

Jaguar E-Type or XK-E (under that name appeared in the U.S.) was originally produced in two body styles, a 2-passenger roadster (OTS or Open Two Seater) or 2-passenger coupé (FHC, or Fixed Head Coupe) . A few years later, in 1965, presented the model of 2 +2. It extended the wheelbase by 9 inches (22.8 cm) and added two small seats. As a result of higher mass have a clear deterioration in the performance of the car. The vehicle was directed mainly towards the American market. He was also offered with an automatic transmission.

Excellent performance achieved by the Jaguar E-type made the decision to build high-performance version - Lightweight intended to take part in races, including the famous Le Mans 24 hours. Unfortunately, despite the involvement of private companies and teams of these vehicles do not take big victories. Left to enjoy the excellent results of the sale of civilian cars.

Jaguar executives quickly responded to the shortcomings of its blockbuster sports detected in the initial period of operation. They were poor cooling of the engine and steering and braking, unsuitable for high-speed performance of the vehicle. Already in 1962, held its first upgrades. At that time, so the car appeared the words "E-Type Jaguar 4.2". Auto got a new engine with a capacity of 4.2 l. Also used in a fully synchronized transmission.

In 1968, Jaguar introduced Series II. Differed from its predecessors primarily larger air intake and front fog lamps cavities without glass panels, and rounded rear bumper. Has changed the look of the dashboard.

A lot of major modifications of the type E was made in 1971. Apart from obvious stylistic changes in the Serie III reached the mechanical. This time the Jaguar was a powerful V12 engine with a capacity of 5300 cc and a power of 272 hp.

E-Type'a production ended in 1974. But even in the next year from a special line of 50 cars rolled off. All were black and had a plaque on the door compartment. The last of the IS chassis number 2872 is owned by Jaguar. In total, during the preparation of the E-Type has sold more than 70,000 of these cars. The car, which so skillfully combines the beauty and excellent performance, is history.

Wednesday, March 2, 2011

DeLorean DMC-12 (1981-1982)

Everything began in 1974. John Z. DeLorean and Bill Collins began work on a project of the American dream car, DeLorean DMC-12. Visions of car designers miel keynote, innovative technologies, offers unparalleled safety systems, twosząc car from another era. DeLorean was supposed to be sporty, safe, elegant and cheap car. In 1978, DeLorean founded the company, which he called his own name. This was the first new company in the U.S. automotive market since 1925. During nearly two years Sir John has built the most technically advanced car factory in the world. Placed it in Ireland.

At the same time the project took on a car shape. The author opened up the door (so-called "gull wings") was an Italian stylist Giorgetto Giugiaro. John Z. DeLorean mróbował work with the Porsche, but in vain. After not successful negotiations with the German company decided to help Lotus. Their concept is a little different from that which Collins presented earlier. He claimed that the car should be simple and easy for ordinary bread eater. Instead they should focus on more important, not necessarily visible detail. Collins and the rest of August and they agreed on one point - the car body will not be painted at all!

DMC DeLoreana features a centrally-mounted engine with a capacity of 2.8 liters and 130 hp and five-speed manual gearbox or trzybiegową automatycznom. Gave the car to a speed 220 km per hour. Its designers insisted that the vehicle complies with all possible standards ekologiczne.Konstuktorzy emphasized that the vehicle meets all environmental standards. The main source of sales were to be DeLoreanów United States. The business owner also planned to open a factory in the U.S., but for economic reasons it has opened in Northern Ireland. Interestingly, he had to open factory in Puerto Rico.

Just before the start of production was added DeLoreanowi number of 12th This was to be the initial price, which should cost $ 12.000, and in fact cost $ 28.000. The long process of design and production costs made the price rose by almost 230%! Rates in 1981 are not criminals klijentów a week traveled about 400 copies of the DMC. In 1982 he began to happen problems, lack of money, the demand for DeLoreany, all this meant that sir. John has had to suspend production. The founder of the factory tried to rescue her in many ways but in vain. As a result, John Z. DeLorean was involved in a drug scandal, was ultimately acquitted in court. But blemish on the reputation remained.

AC Cobra (1961-1967)

Cobra history is inextricably linked with the English company, an American AC, and Carroll Shelby.

It was in this small British company in 1953 created a sleek roadster, called Ace. From the outset, its main purpose was the racetrack. The car was valued from the very beginning of the race drivers for their good performance, but did not refer to major successes.

During this time, on the other side of the ocean was a racing driver - Carroll Shelby had the idea to collaborate with AC. Knowing about problems with the AC power unit to your vehicle (Bristol stops producing the engine used in the model, Ace), Carroll Shelby's AC suggested owners use their cars in one of American V8 engines.

The idea for Ford Shelby agreed, ensuring the supply of their engines for this project.
First Cobra - 260-inch engine was built in 1962. Although the dynamics have shocked many shortcomings. Sprawiały difficulty in carrying out less skilled driver. Despite this, 75 units were built first Mk

Because of the criticism of the first models in 1963 Cobra Shelby's workshop in Venice, California, has introduced an improved version of this car with the modified 289-inch engine (4.7 l) - known as the Mk second It was built about 500 units of this model.

It was only a matter of time before the body will visit the Cobra Big Block Ford with a capacity of 427 inches. To enable the Cobra received a strengthened and expanded body. By the way changed the suspension by installing a coil spring .. That was the Cobra Mk III.

It was originally planned to build a version of the Mk III for use only on the racetrack, but the issue of approval has contributed to the fact that they had to release the version półwyczynową, allowed on the road.
No wonder that the Cobra engine 427 and the power of 540 hp at that time was the fastest production car in the world. For the 1967 model, made 348 copies of the 427th

The main element of this car was obviously a racetrack. That's where Cobra was able to show their true colors and reveal its full potential. Racing Le Mans, Daytona, Sebring, are inseparably connected with this car. With the Cobra will always be associated with the sport.

Cobra story ends with 1967, when it was produced on March 19 last copy. Contributed to this mainly changes in standards and regulations for safety and ecology.

Today the price of the original Cobra reach hundreds of thousands of dollars.